Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Swiss Society for Biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine Annual Conference

Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials science, industry, physicians

The SSB+RM meetings are devoted to all aspects of biomaterials science including basic research, engineering, and medical applications. The 2017 conference is dedicated to Advances in Antimicrobial Materials. This conference will include keynote speakers who will give an overview of clinical and commercial translations of biomaterials. Selected sessions are devoted to the design, preparation, characterization, quality control and application of all types of antimicrobial materials from the viewpoints of academia, industry and the clinics.
 
Both oral and poster presentations are welcome. Those wishing to present are asked to submit an extended abstract (1 page maximum) by March 17th, 2017. Abstracts must be submitted as an electronic file in MS Word and must adhere to the abstract guidelines. The abstract template can soon be obtained from the conference website.
 
 
Contact
Dr Katharina Maniura
EMPA, Biointerfaces
Phone: +41 58 765 74 47
e-mail

Thursday, November 3, 2016

Alzheimer's, a dementia disease of the past?

The BACE1 inhibitor verubecestat (MK-8931) reduces CNS β-amyloid in animal models and in Alzheimer’s disease patients

The discovery of BACE1 inhibitors that reduce β-amyloid peptides in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients has been an encouraging development in the quest for a disease-modifying therapy. Kennedy and colleagues now report the discovery of verubecestat, a structurally unique, orally bioavailable small molecule that potently inhibits brain BACE1 activity resulting in a reduction in Aβ peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid of animals, healthy volunteers, and AD patients. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in chronic animal toxicology studies or in phase 1 human studies, thus reducing safety concerns raised by previous reports of BACE inhibitors and BACE1 knockout mice.
 
According to the World Health Organization over 36 million people world-wide are affected by dementia, of which the majority have Alzheimer’s. This number is forecast to double by 2030 and triple by 2050 if no treatment is discovered. So great hopes are placed on verubecestat. 
 

Monday, August 15, 2016

Nanoparticles to Break Up Plaque and Prevent Cavities

Philadelphia, PA (Scicasts) — The bacteria that live in dental plaque and contribute to tooth decay often resist traditional antimicrobial treatment, as they can "hide" within a sticky biofilm matrix, a glue-like polymer scaffold.
 
A new strategy conceived by University of Pennsylvania researchers took a more sophisticated approach. Instead of simply applying an antibiotic to the teeth, they took advantage of the pH-sensitive and enzyme-like properties of iron-containing nanoparticles to catalyze the activity of hydrogen peroxide, a commonly used natural antiseptic. The activated hydrogen peroxide produced free radicals that were able to simultaneously degrade the biofilm matrix and kill the bacteria within, significantly reducing plaque and preventing the tooth decay, or cavities, in an animal model.
 
"Even using a very low concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the process was incredibly effective at disrupting the biofilm," said Hyun (Michel) Koo, a professor in the Penn School of Dental Medicine's Department of Orthodontics and divisions of Pediatric Dentistry and Community and Oral Health and the senior author of the study, which was published in the journal Biomaterials. "Adding nanoparticles increased the efficiency of bacterial killing more than 5,000-fold."
 

Research Shows Gentle Cancer Treatment Using Nanoparticles Works

Copenhagen, Denmark (Scicasts) — Cancer treatments based on laser irradiation of tiny nanoparticles that are injected directly into the cancer tumour are working and can destroy the cancer from within.
 
Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute and the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Copenhagen have developed a method that kills cancer cells using nanoparticles and lasers. The treatment has been tested on mice and it has been demonstrated that the cancer tumours are considerably damaged. The results are published in the scientific journal, Scientific Reports.
 
Traditional cancer treatments like radiation and chemotherapy have major side affects, because they not only affect the cancer tumours, but also the healthy parts of the body. A large interdisciplinary research project between physicists at the Niels Bohr Institute and doctors and human biologists at the Panum Institute and Rigshospitalet has developed a new treatment that only affects cancer tumours locally, therefore, much more gentle on the body. The project is called Laser Activated Nanoparticles for Tumor Elimination (LANTERN). The head of the project is Professor Lene Oddershede, a biophysicist and head of the research group Optical Tweezers at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen in collaboration with Professor Andreas Kjær, head of the Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Panum Institute.

Click for complete article

Monday, May 9, 2016

Latest Advances in Nano-Oncology

Unique characteristics of nanoparticles make them highly attractive for various applications in oncology. They are able to function as carriers for chemotherapeutic drugs to increase their therapeutic index and lower their toxicity, as therapeutic agents in photodynamic, gene, and thermal therapy, as well as molecular imaging agents to detect and monitor cancer progression. Several nanoparticle-based agents for cancer therapy and diagnostics have been approved by FDA, more are in clinical trials, and even more are in the discovery and early development stages in academic and industry laboratories. Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s Latest Advances in Nano-Oncology symposium is designed to encourage open discussion and knowledge exchange in this exiting and rapidly developing area at the junction of nanobiotechnology and oncology.
 

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Hitting cancer from the inside

Most cancer cells carry unique receptors on their surface. Because the receptors extend into the cell's interior, they act as intermediaries between the outside and the inside. Chemotherapeutic drugs that dock on the exterior trigger a cascade of biochemical reactions inside the cell. At the end of this process, the cancer cells should die off. Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI are now investigating a new method that would not only attach radioactive substances to the outside of a cancer cell, but also would channel them right into the cell's nucleus. Thus the radiation source would remain inside the cell and work in a more targeted way, by getting closer to the genetic information. If the suitable radioactive compounds can be found, this method has the potential to help with several kinds of cancer in the future.

One of the most important goals in cancer therapy is to strike at the heart of the camouflaged cancer cells – that is, in the nucleus. In cancer cells, pathologically mutated DNA ensures that cell division occurs more rapidly and more frequently than in normal cells. Many cytotoxins used in chemotherapy against cancer manage to penetrate to the cell nucleus and attack precisely those processes that are important for cell division. Others interfere with the metabolism of tumour cells, thereby impeding their growth. Thus they all operate within the cell, and particularly at the time when it is dividing. Many cytotoxins, however, are non-specific and also attack other tissues of the body that renew themselves frequently, such as hair or mucous membranes.
 
 

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

New frontiers in bioscience

In laboratories around the world, some of the brightest scientists—well-established and those early in their careers—are conceiving novel theories at the very forefront of knowledge. In tissue regeneration, multilevel function, multiscale modeling, longevity, and other cutting-edge fields, breakthrough research will soon enable us to improve human health and perhaps even reveal the deepest mechanisms of life itself.

Paul G. Allen is the cofounder of Microsoft, the chief executive officer of Vulcan Inc., a recipient of the 2015 Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, and the founder of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, Institute for Cell Science, and Institute for Artificial Intelligence.
 
In his article Allen explains how "...the complexity of biology is a fascinating challenge, and I am keen to see the field deconstruct its mysteries, establish reliable and predictive models, and put that knowledge to work."

Allen further believes ".....we should also be working more aggressively to break down scientific silos by backing more collaborative, interdisciplinary teams that include experts in bioscience, mathematics, computer science, medicine, engineering, and other fields. For example, the Human Genome Project succeeded because of the convergence of massive computing power, new algorithms, expertise in laboratory biology, and broad support from the public and private sectors."

Thursday, March 31, 2016

Human Brain Project's Research Platforms Released

Public Release of Platforms Will Help Advance Collaborative Research in Neuroscience, Medicine, and Computing
 
The Human Brain Project (HBP) is pleased to announce the release of initial versions of its six Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Platforms to users outside the Project. These Platforms are designed to help the scientific community to accelerate progress in neuroscience, medicine, and computing.
 
The Platforms released today consist of prototype hardware, software tools, databases and programming interfaces, which will be refined and expanded in a collaborative approach with users, and integrated within the framework of a European Research Infrastructure. The public release of the Platforms represents the end of the Ramp-Up Phase of the HBP and the beginning of the Operational Phase.
 
Karlheinz Meier, Co-leader of the Neuromorphic Platform, said, “The HBP invites scientists everywhere to work with our prototype Platforms and give us their feedback. This will help us improve their functionality and ease of use, and hence their value to society”.
 

Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Neuronal Feedback Could Change What We "See"

Study from Carnegie Mellon Neuroscientists Could Explain Mechanism Behind Optical Illusions

By Jocelyn Duffy / 412-268-9982 / jhduffy@andrew.cmu.edu

Ever see something that isn't really there? Could your mind be playing tricks on you? The "tricks" might be your brain reacting to feedback between neurons in different parts of the visual system, according to a study published in The Journal of Neuroscience by Carnegie Mellon University Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences Sandra J. Kuhlman and colleagues.
 

Optical Illusion
 
Understanding this feedback system could provide new insight into the visual system's neuronal circuitry and could have further implications for understanding how the brain interprets and understands sensory stimuli.
 
Many optical illusions make you see something that's not there. Take the Kanizsa triangle: when you place three Pac-Man-like wedges in the right spot, you see a triangle, even though the edges of the triangle aren't drawn. 
 
"We see with both our brain and our eyes. Your brain is making inferences that allow you to see the triangle. It's connecting the dots between the corners of the wedges," said Kuhlman, who is a member of Carnegie Mellon's BrainHub neuroscience initiative and the joint Carnegie Mellon/University of Pittsburgh Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition (CNBC). "Optical illusions illustrate some of the amazing things our visual system can do."

Monday, March 14, 2016

Breast Cancer Drug Combination Could Shrink Tumors in Days

Drug combination shrinks HER2-positive breast cancers within 11 days

Breast cancer cells stained for DNA (red), NFkB (green), and a reactive oxygen species probe (blue). Julia Sero  the ICR, 2011
Breast cancer cells stained for DNA (red), NFkB (green), and a reactive oxygen species probe (blue) (photo: Julia Sero/the ICR)

A drug combination – of lapatinib and trastuzumab (Herceptin) – before surgery shrinks and may even destroy tumours in women with HER2 positive disease within 11 days, according to new research.
 
The EPHOS B trial, led by researchers at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, the University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, studied 257 women with HER2 positive breast cancer in the short gap between initial diagnosis and surgery to remove their tumours.
 

Thursday, January 21, 2016

Brain's Memory Capacity is 10 Times Greater Than Previously Thought

Scientists have discovered that the brain’s capacity for memory storage is far greater than previously hypothesized. How much greater? Well, the Salk Institute research would increase conservative estimates by a factor of 10, up to at least a petabyte, putting the brain’s capacity on par with the World Wide Web

The researchers recently published their work in eLife.
 
Memories and thoughts result from electrical and chemical activity in the brain. Information flows between neurons via synapses as chemicals called neurotransmitters.

Synapse dysfunction can lead to a myriad of neurological disorders. But synapses exhibit varying levels of plasticity, which dictates how influential one neuron is over a neuron it’s connected to. According to the researchers, a signal traveling form one neuron to another only activates the second neuron between 10 and 20 % of the time.
 

Tuesday, January 5, 2016

Study uncovers inherited genetic susceptibility across 12 cancer types​​

By Julia Evangelou Strait

 
 
A new study sheds light on the inherited components of 12 cancer types. The research confirmed the well-known heritability of breast and ovarian cancers and found a surprising inherited component to stomach cancer. In the graphic above, Lung 1 is lung squamous cell carcinoma, and Lung 2 is lung adenocarcinoma. Sara Dickherber
 


Researchers long have known that some portion of the risk of developing cancer is hereditary and that inherited genetic errors are very important in some tumors but much less so in others.

In a new analysis, researchers have shed light on these hereditary elements across 12 cancer types — showing a surprising inherited component to stomach cancer and providing some needed clarity on the consequences of certain types of mutations in well-known breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2.
 
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